New articles online EHNE : « From demographic transition to sexual revolution », and « Childbirth without pain »
Two new articles are now online on the « Ecrire une histoire nouvelle de l’Europe » Encyclopaedia : From demographic transition to sexual révolutions written by Virginie de Luca Barrusse, Childbirth without pain, written by Jocelyne George.
From demographic transition to sexual revolutions : Demographic transition has accompanied the transformation of the couple and the family in Europe since the late eighteenth century. The founding element of the family remains marriage, with high marriage rates up to the 1970s, before a decrease in favour of cohabitation. Divorce also became commonplace. Family size shrank and became standardized with the introduction of more effective contraceptive techniques. For all that, norms continue to have considerable influence despite these major evolutions, as demonstrated by opposition to gay marriage, or restrictions to medically-assisted procreation. This resistance to what was called the “sexual revolution” in the late 1960s has instead prompted talk of the modernization of sexuality in the twenty-first century.
Childbirth without pain : Psychoprophylactic childbirth, better known as “painless childbirth,” consists of psychological pain relief based on the theory of conditioned reflexes. Invented in the USSR and imported to France by Fernand Lamaze, it later spread throughout Europe despite political resistance prompted by its origins. It challenged the biblical injunction of giving birth in pain, and gave women more control over their bodies.