New articles on the EHNE Encyclopedia
The Gender&Europe section of the EHNE encyclopedia has been enriched with new articles in English. Discover them and don’t hesitate to share them!
Antifeminism, by Christine Bard
Antifeminism is the countermovement of thought and action that is opposed to feminism. Its thematic range is as extensive as the fields of feminism’s intervention, and has evolved over time to oppose the rights gradually won by women. The ramblings of tortured minds? Isolated voices bringing age-old misogyny into modernity? Political discourse rooted in counterrevolutionary thought? An on the whole logical reaction by the “class of men” mobilized to conserve power? The scope of the subject calls for a periodization that logically follows the history of feminism, whose “first wave” extended across Europe from the late nineteenth century to the early 1960s.
Surveys on sexuality in Europe, by Régis Schlagdenhauffen
Sex surveys developed in Europe beginning in the early twentieth century, when sexology became established as a discipline. Initially of a qualitative nature, they later became statistical and quantitative at the instigation of Magnus Hirschfeld, the founder of the Institute for Sexual Science in Berlin. They originally focused on specific populations (homosexuals, prostitutes), but eventually became more diverse following the publication of Alfred Kinsey’s reports in the United States after the Second World War. The first national surveys were conducted in Europe (Sweden and France) starting in the 1960s and 1970s. In the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, new systems made it possible to conduct larger-scale comparative surveys, in an effort to better understand the sexual practices and attitudes of Europeans, and to more effectively prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
Women and ICT : reflecting on Europeans circulations, by Valérie Schafer
From the beginnings of the telegraph to the development of computing, women participated as producers, users, consumers, and an ideal or real audience in the circulation of information through Europe, and took part in the European history of information and communications technology (ICT). Reflecting on their European circulation and trajectories remains difficult due to a historiography that is still being built, as well as a lack of comparative studies providing accounts of the diverse paces at which these technologies developed, both in relation to one another and among European countries. Despite these gaps, gendered particularities emerge, including the gradual process that rendered women invisible—with the exception of a few figures—in their collective participation within ICT.